Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Foundation of Medicine structure for human services quality - Assignment Example ences and needs), opportune (the time it takes to get and offer consideration to patients), effectiveness (utilization of all assets to the most extreme) and impartiality (giving equivalent nature of care to patient of various sexual orientation or status). These parts can be applied to nursing so as to guarantee a high human services quality. The security segment, for example, can be executed by guaranteeing that the medical attendants have the essential information and aptitudes required in the field. Then again, adequacy and proficiency can be guaranteed by arrangement of a severe administrative group; which will direct and guarantee appropriate utilization of the nursing assets. Convenient and quiet centeredness segments of medicinal services quality can be accomplished by diminishing the proportion of patients to attendants in order to guarantee that patients will get the consideration they require. At long last, impartiality can be met by disheartening separation of patients and setting brutal standards to those discovered segregating patients. When the segments are executed and watched carefully, the nursing division can be of high human services quality. In my real work setting, the system parts can be applied to improve the nature of medicinal services administrations advertised. For starter, all the medical attendants without a recognition in nursing ought to be compelled to go further their investigations; this will subsequently improve wellbeing of the medicinal services gave by lessening the quantities of mishaps to patients while experiencing treatment. On medical attendants promoting their examinations, the administrator ought to be profoundly qualified and exacting; this will guarantee adequacy and productivity of the wellbeing centerÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. Furthermore, the administration can build the quantity of medical attendants in the wellbeing place in order to guarantee opportune quality and the capacity to give care which is receptive to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ inclinations and necessities. This will eventually build the medicinal services nature of the wellbeing
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The death penalty In the public eye today there are murders dedicated regular. What's more, regular the individuals who carry out these wrongdoings are seen as blameworthy in a courtroom and condemned to like in jail. Some even get chances for parole. What the courts ought to do is take each killer, give all of them capital punishment, and finish with it. Capital punishment ought to be legitimate in each of the 50 states and helped through at the point when given out as a sentence. Gary Gilmore confronted a terminating crew at the Utah State Prison on January 17, 1977. There have been 55 homicides in that state during 1976. During 1977, in wake of the Gilmore execution, there were 44 murders: a 20 percent decline. As should be obvious, the execution had some impact on the homicide rate in Utah. There are not many demonstrated realities about capital discipline deflecting wrongdoing right now. This is so on the grounds that death penalty isn't sufficiently utilized to really affect individuals. Of all homicide sentences that 38 percent get capital punishment. On the off chance that that 38 percent just 0.1 percent are executed. On the off chance that we utilize capital punishment all the more frequently and all things considered bring through with it will affect the crime percentage in the nation. Individuals will see that at long last we have equity in this nation and if they do this, there is an enormous possibility they will be gotten and they are going to get capital punishment. We likewise need capital punishment in this nation in such a case that we execute the killer that individual gets no opportunity to ever murder or mischief someone else once more. The individual will never get an opportunity for parole and there will never be a danger of this individual ever destroying another family's life. It isn't reasonable for a killer to get life in jail. The killer despite everything can have an actual existence, not quite a bit of one, however they do have one. The person in question can in any case speak with their families. The casualty of the homicide can't. The casualty's family will always be unable to see there adored one once more. Something else with life in jail is that the killer may get an opportunity for parole. In the event that they feel that the killer is restored and prepared to enter society again they simply let that person out of jail. Anyone can appear restored however backpedal on the boulevards and murder someone else if not more. There are not very many detriments of the death penalty. The first and presumably top explanation is that a individual can be unfairly charged and condemned for a homicide. The blameless individual is accused of homicide and condemned to capital punishment in spite of the fact that they didn't perpetrate the wrongdoing they are blamed for. This sadly is the greatest hindrance of capital punishment. Another hindrance must be on the off chance that someone executed someone else in self protection. Let us state there is a man or lady in your home that you don't have the foggiest idea. The person comes up and attempts to snatch and damage you here and there. In the end table, you keep a handgun. You can get to the weapon and shoot the culprit and the individual in question kicks the bucket. Should this individual be accused of homicide? No, this is a demonstration of self preservation where the person in question if the shootings was imperiling the life of the shooter. Capital punishment ought to be built up in each of the 50 states. The crime percentage would go down if all states had the capital punishment since individuals would see killers being executed and in the event that they do this they will be condemned to death moreover. There is no doubt as far as I can tell that wrongdoing would go down. Likewise, there would be no way that the executioner could ever find the opportunity to slaughter once more. With society being how it is today, with kids slaughtering in schools and individuals shooting or cutting others for tranquilize bargains turned sour, the death penalty should be set up and completed. They will see that in the event that they do this they also will get capital punishment and the too are going to endure the results that accompany submitting murder.
The Meaning Of Family To The South Asian (Indian) Male Essay The family is customarily the center of every single Asian culture. Choices are regularly completed while mulling over the close family, just as the outer family. Yet, with regards to Asian culture, the family Ã¢â¬Å"is not an especially cherishing social unit.Ã¢â¬  In most Asian social orders, the family is utilized as a methods for shielding property, proceeding with bloodlines and procuring more wealth. Indian culture is one such model wherein this reality exists. Children are allowed special treatment over their sisters, in light of the fact that the previous is relied upon to maintain the privately-owned company and proceed with the family name. Likewise, customs, for example, the endowment framework give moment fortune to a groomÃ¢â¬â¢s family. The Indian male, hence, sees the family as a setting wherein he can practice control and acquire material flourishing. This conviction isn't without social fortifications. Companions and family members shout congrats at whatever point an infant kid is destined to Indian guardians. In Indian culture, a child is viewed as insurance Ã¢â¬ he will acquire his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s property and will help bolster the family by finding a new line of work. In sharp complexity, girls are viewed as extra expenses Ã¢â¬ their lone spot is in the home. The predisposition against girls is profoundly instilled in Indian culture that individuals in certain pieces of India utilize the articulation Ã¢â¬Å"The hireling of your family has been bornÃ¢â¬  when welcoming a family with an infant little girl. In the Indian family, the dad is the supplier and the prevailing position figure. He should treat his significant other like a worker and be harsh and unapproachable towards his kids. The spouse, then again, must be steadfast, submissive and compliant to her better half. She should keep an eye on his needs like a loyal and dedicated hireling. Such an unbending and various leveled family structure frequently leaves spouses feeling dismissed and manhandled. To dispose of these feelings, they luxurious all their thoughtfulness regarding their sons. In doing as such, they become the supplier and the predominant position figures in their particular families. The Indian mother gives her infant, particularly on the off chance that it is a kid, consistent sustaining. The infant is continually taken care of, enjoyed and is reacted to at each whine. Growing up, male Indian youngsters are made to accept that they have the right to be the focal point of consideration just on account of their sexual orientation. Their moms absolved them from errands, as the previous sees housework as a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s work. After arriving at pre-adulthood, male Indians are urged to demonstrate their manliness by drinking, smoking, betting and engaging in sexual relations with whores. This cultural desire isn't without help from the family Ã¢â¬ there are situations when fathers and uncles are the ones who carry their children and nephews to the massage parlor for their first sexual experience. In view of its overemphasis on reveling children, the previously mentioned youngster raising method creates entirely flippant guys. Spoiled from earliest stages, most Indian men end up as wastrels, abusing the assets first of their moms and later of their spouses. More regrettable, they wed ladies who were raised to endure the impulse of their spouses. The matrimonial family, thus, is changed into an augmentation of the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s close family. The spouse, in the interim, turns into the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s trade for his mom Ã¢â¬ a lady who will take into account his every impulse and will ignore even his most genuine offenses The spouse must choose the option to acknowledge and live with this circumstance Ã¢â¬ society directs that she moves her dedication to her marital family upon marriage. Not exclusively is she to deal with her significant other; she is additionally to take care of her folks in-law. Indian guardians in-law, particularly relatives, exploit this cultural commitment by guaranteeing that the marriage of their children will give their family material advantages. The settlement framework is one method of accomplishing this objective. In spite of the fact that it was at that point banned in India in 1961, the act of paying and tolerating settlement is as yet standard in the nation. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s unlawful settlement framework leaves ladies powerless against misuse and even homicide. Consistently, an expected 25,000 women in the nation are disfigured or slaughtered over share debates. Endowment related wrongdoings are frequently sustained by grooms and relatives who are not happy with the settlements that the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s family gave them. Survivors of endowment murders are generally executed by being splashed with lamp oil and set burning with a lit match. The group of the husband to be will at that point say that the demise was a Ã¢â¬Å"suicideÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"kitchen accident.Ã¢â¬ Police are intermittently paid off into substantiating the case. Families who can bear the cost of over the top expensive endowments, then again, are frequently left ruined and with amazingly substantial obligations. In pre-pioneer India, upper-position families watched the endowment framework so as to help settle marriage costs and to empower the lady to live all alone should she leave a harsh marriage. But the British brought homogenized and classified laws into the nation, bringing about male control of the nearby economy. Only men were permitted to claim land and work outside the home. All the while, young men increased higher social worth than young ladies. These social, political and monetary conditions prompted the change of the endowment framework from a wedding blessing to a type of payment to a man for wedding a lady. Since Indian ladies were not, at this point equipped for claiming area or working outside the home, guardians needed to get rid of their girls as ahead of schedule as could reasonably be expected. Thus, they attracted potential spouses with costly endowments. The groups of these men, then again, saw the settlement framework as a chance to take care of overwhelming area burdens that the British forced on them. Settlements took on another structure in the twentieth century. During this period, groups of imminent grooms requested exorbitant shares so as to stay aware of the consumerist way of life related with capitalism. To persuade families regarding potential ladies into paying, Indian men, especially those from the privileged societies, profit by their qualification, social ability and caste. The higher the capabilities and the rank, the higher the settlement required. Indian families respect union with a higher position as the quickest method to social advancement.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Scholarly Achievement Of Children And Young People Education Essay For my paper theme, I chose to concentrate on the region of Ã¢â¬Ëacademic accomplishment of kids and youngsters in careÃ¢â¬â¢, and attempt to find whenever took care of kids and youngsters are being flopped by the framework. I got inspired by this zone as I have went over a wide range of reports from different organizations and furthermore from the media that instruction of youngsters out in the open consideration is a reason for concern. For me to do my writing survey I will complete research from various scholastic articles which is pertinent to my paper title, I will portray and investigate the information which exists inside these articles which will assist me with recognizing the extension and key issues encompassing my title. Regarding Jackson and Simon 2005, Ã¢â¬ËChildren who experience childhood in nearby position care, Ã¢â¬Ëlooked-afterÃ¢â¬â¢ under the Children Act 1989, are multiple times more probable than others to require the assistance of emotional wellness ad ministrations; multiple times bound to have extraordinary necessities requiring evaluation, backing or treatment; multiple times bound to abuse liquor or medications; multiple times bound to end up in jail; multiple times bound to get destitute, and multiple times bound to have kids requiring open careÃ¢â¬â¢. These are on the whole gigantic issues which do influence people in the open consideration area. One approach to defeat a large number of these issues is Ã¢â¬ËeducationÃ¢â¬â¢, if these people were getting the privilege instructive results and capabilities it would furnish them with a superior nature of grown-up life. Ã¢â¬ËEach step up the instructive stepping stool is related with enhancements in wellbeing, both mental and physical; business, salary, lodging, family life, nonattendance of extra issues and lower danger of association with the criminal equity systemÃ¢â¬â¢, (Jackson and Simon, 2005). Jackson and Mc Parlin 2006, Ã¢â¬Ëargue that the poor results for peop le who have invested energy in care as youngsters can be unhesitatingly connected to instructive disappointment, and that the consideration and training frameworks must bear a substantial obligation regarding thisÃ¢â¬â¢. Pre-care encounters can have an enormous influence in discouraging accomplishment, yet in addition the result of specific encounters when youngsters get expelled from their families can cause an immense effect in their lives. Ã¢â¬ËTeachers frequently know nothing or next to no of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s history and the preparation they get don't prepare them to comprehend the consideration framework or to deal with the conduct of cared for kids, (Comfort, 2004). Pithouse et al 2002, acknowledge that Ã¢â¬Ëcarers earnestly need all the more preparing and backing, including counsel from clinicians, however bring up that the abused term Ã¢â¬Ëchallenging behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ darkens a wide assortment of issues emerging from the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s past experience of life i n turbulent and careless families and the vulnerabilities and dissatisfactions related with being in careÃ¢â¬â¢. Numerous youngsters entering care, do as such beyond 10 a years old, may just spend a brief timeframe in care. Ã¢â¬ËConsequently, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-care experience is one of the most significant effects on their excursion through careÃ¢â¬â¢ Hannon et al 2010. Regardless of what foundation a kid in care has, they should be giving a similar possibility as some other youngster to take advantage of their gifts and potential. For this to be accomplished schools can help by boosting a childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing and prosperity, by mounting self-assurance and confidence, as instructive results are effectively affected by a childÃ¢â¬â¢s passionate, mental and physical wellbeing.
Wednesday, July 29, 2020
Free Novel Outlines and More on Eadeverell.com Whether youre a seasoned writer or an aspiring author, youll know that the physical act of writing is only one part of the work that goes into creating a novel. The other aspects can be just as time-consuming, and arguably more difficult, than actually sitting down and typing out the story.When it comes to creative writing, I tend to struggle with having a strong plot outline ready to go before I start writing. Invariably, that ends up with me getting stuck in the dreaded middle section and having to edit the finished manuscript extensively. So, imagine how excited I was to discover a treasure trove of writing resources available on Eadeverell.com.Created by creative writer and writing tutor Eva Deverell, the blog has an incredible amount of helpful information. There are articles, worksheets, video workshops, and tips on virtually every single aspect of writing a novel or story.Lets take a look at just some of the exciting resources available:There are numerous resources for writers at eadeverell.com, including a one-page novel plot formula, writing quotes, full-length novel outlines, and more.Free novel outlineOne of the main draws of the blog is the free novel outline that you can claim by signing up to receive emails. Signing up with your email address gets you access to even more writing hints and tips, so its a win-win situation. Make sure you add them to your safe sender list because this newsletter is most certainly not junk!What you receive is a clearly laid-out outline that gives you the skeleton for writing an entire novel. Even the most die-hard pantsers among us could benefit from having this resource. Id encourage every creative writer to get this free resource and give it a try. Even if you think outlining is not for you, I suspect this easy-to-use formula could change your mind.The outline includes character details and motivations, as well as a complete list of scene summaries suitable for an entire 80,000-word novel.Resources for creating a gr eat plotEA Deverells blog contains one of the most amazing and comprehensive free resources Ive found on plotting, The One Page Novel formula. The spreadsheet provided helps you to plot out the story using an incredibly effective story arc. There are also word counts for each stage, and you can easily track your progress.Its created with a 50,000-word novel in mind, but its straightforward enough to adjust this to accommodate a different word count. The spreadsheet is incredibly simple to use, available in Google Docs, and is something I think every creative writer should be using.If you want an even more intensive look at how to plot a novel with ease, theres also The One Page Novel course available for enrollment. The course is self-paced and consists of 17 audio/video lessons, plus access to exclusive pdf content to help you plot and write your novel.Here are some course details from the enrollment page.How to create the core plot for your novel on 1 sheet of paper (and in under 2 hours).How to use the one page layout to generate endless story ideas.How to resurrect, troubleshoot and revise your stagnant or abandoned stories, so you dont waste your hard work.How to add, extract, and interweave subplots into the main plot (so you can add depth to your characters and your story).How to use internal and external motivators to guarantee you finish writing your novel.The most common plot problems and how to fix them as you write (so that you dont get stuck in an infinite rewrite loop).How to fix broken plots methodically.How to fix broken characters without breaking your plot.The #1 simple trick for solving plot problems that will allow you to overcome blocks and come up with answers that work.Plot a story in under 2 hours? Troubleshoot and fix broken plots and characters without extensive rewriting? Sign me up!Given how good the free resources are, I expect this course will be mind-blowing.Creative writing worksheets and author resourcesOf course, once youve na iled your outline, plot, and characters, its time to start writing. Youll need to choose a point of view, come up with creative metaphors and similes, and set the scene. There are plenty of resources here to help with those elements of writing too.The creative writing worksheets are outstanding and cover pretty much every aspect of being an author. Theres a large collection of them addressing every topic you could think of. From writers block to developing your author platform, theres help and advice available.The emphasis in each worksheet is on you doing the work to find out the best way for you to tackle an issue, with a little guidance. I find this a much better approach than the prescriptive my way or the highway attitude that some writing teachers and coaches can adopt.If youre looking to ramp up your productivityâ"certainly something on the mind of most writers, The Novel in a Month Notebook is an excellent, and free, printable resource. You can use it to support your NaNoWr iMo project, or use it any time to help you produce great quality writing faster.If youre planning on completing NaNoWriMo, theres a comprehensive NaNoWriMo resource list available on the blog that has everything you could possibly need to complete your novel in record time.If you want a little extra help, but arent ready to buy an entire course yet, there are some paid worksheets and eBooks at very reasonable prices. My personal favorite is the 40 page eBook The Fools Journey for busy writers. This eBook uses the Tarot as the basis for teaching how to write a great story. It includes advice on adding appropriate conflict and archetypal images and symbols to add depth to your writing.Theres also an interesting novel named Alemmia available.Alemmia is the story of the first summer that Lucy and her family spend on an idyllic island. Its a somewhat old-fashioned tale of childhood adventure, and an easy breezy, low-contrast, low-drama beach read to soothe you into more magical manifest ations!Heres the blurb from the website:Summer on an Edenic Mediterranean island. What could go right?For little Lucia, everything, though she doesnt know it yet.For us, the resolution of conflict, the accomplishment of desires, and the beginning of another beautiful season.Alemmia is a tale of childhood adventure and the potential of the Law of AttractionEadeverell.comTheres an accompanying set of worksheets to help you make the law of attraction work for you. Im a huge fan of the law of attraction and the power of a positive mindset. Ive read lots of law of attraction books and articles, and this is one of the most creative approaches to the law of attraction that Ive seen. If youre looking to attract more good things into your life, this is certainly worth a look.MembershipsProviding your email address gives you a code for exclusive access to The Coterie. Behind this closed section of the website, there are yet more free resources, including the One Page Novel workbook that suppl ements the free materials beautifully.Purchasing any of the courses will gain you lifetime access to the course. For those craving membership to a welcoming writing community, you also receive lifetime access to The Lady Writers League. The League is a supportive community of fellow writers which is open to ladies gentlemen of all levels of writing ability. You can find a writing buddy or critique partner, join in with a challenge, or share your successes and challenges on the Lady Writers League forums.Plus, you receive access to yet more resources to support your creative writing, including:a growing library of free ebooks, printables, and toolsa growing archive of free training, including challenges and mini-courses.Receive special discounts on any future writing courses you decide to take.$5 of every order goes towards supporting our favorite non-profit writing event, NaNoWriMo.You can also join the list to be informed when the other courses How to Be The Heroine of Your Own St ory and How to Lose Yourself in a World of Your Own Invention are available for enrollment.The takeawayEadeverell.com is a brilliant resource for writers at every stage of their journey. Its easy to navigate and jam-packed with informative articles and hands-on writing exercises.For a beginning author, its an almost foolproof collection of resources. I certainly wish Id found it sooner. Even as a seasoned creative writer, there are dozens of worksheets, tips, and tools to make sure Im on top of my novel-writing game.Some of the best articles and exercises on the blog are:Writing quotes to make you feel like a writerWrite with meHow to write a novellaHow to grow as a writerWhat I enjoyed the most from the articles and resources on the site was that the advice given is practical and not dogmatic. Rather than a this is how you must write prescriptive tone, the tools and guidance provided are designed to help you come to your own creative conclusions.If youve not discovered the site yet , then what are you waiting for? Head on over and check out the amazing creative resources that eadeverell.com has to offer.
Monday, June 29, 2020
Bacteria, Viruses, and Health (Essay Sample) Content: Bacteria, Viruses, and HealthNameInstitutionThe drug resistance bacteria are a natural process that occurs when a patient use antimicrobial for any infection. The microbes are forced to die or adapt; notably, the microbes that survive carries the resistance genes that is passed from one person to another (Chan, 2011 ). Inherently, human behaviors such as flawed assumptions and faulty practices increase the resistance rate of the bacteria. On the other hand, policy failures and human practices amplify the continued resistance of bacteria. In essence, the world has failed to provide appropriate care for these cures. Arguably, bacterial resistance to diseases such as malaria is high owing to the single type of artemisinin-based therapies.According to Chan (2011 ), bacterial resistance can be reduced by developing rational and appropriate use of antimicrobial. These irrational behaviors include overuse, improper, and unprofessional dispensing of drugs to patients. The pha rmacists are blamed for yielding to the demands of the patients while others for profitable reasons. Moreover, the underuse of the drugs by the patients increases the risk of bacterial resistance to drugs (Chan, 2011 ). Complete consumption of the drugs will kill all the pathogens in the body. Hence, patients should avoid using drugs as soon as they start t feel better. In addition, misuse of the drug such as using a drug for the wrong disease. Proper diagnostic test needs to be carried out before a drug is given to the patient. Moreover, governments should ensure that substandard drugs are kept from away circul...
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3595 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Islamic principles have stated clearly that all business transactions have to follow the fairness behavior stated in Islamic law where no party should gain any sort of unequal treatment thus when an investment occurs between two parties both the parties should divide the profit or loss according to the business status (Schon; 2009). Islamic principles related to monetary transactions have stated clearly that no harm or use of harmful products is allowed to be conducted under the Islamic business (Schon; 2009). Thus; Gambling, prostitution and similar projects should be banned from using Islamic money as a tool of transactions (Schon; 2009). 2.1 Principles behind Islamic Banking Two basic principles behind Islamic banking are the sharing of profit and loss (PLS), significantly, the prohibition of collection and payment of interest. In fact, collecting interest is not permitted under Islamic law. Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activities that is consistent with Islamic law and principles and guided by Islamic economics (Sipra, 2002). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The background and principles related to Islamic Banking" essay for you Create order 2.3 Islamic Banking around the World Present Islamic finance has exist globally since the 1970.Currently, Islamic finance represent small but growing fragment of the global finance industry (Ariss 2010). Estimates diverge of the total size of the assets held globally under Islamic finance, ranging upwards from 800 billion and with growth rates of 10% to 15% annually over the past ten years. Indeed, United Kingdom has announced initiations to reserve London as a main player in the Islamic finance industry (Kerr, 2007); the global market for Islamic bonds known as Sukuk us estimated to be $70 billion currently and is projected to reach $100 billion by 2010.Global issuance of Islamic bonds has increased more than five-fold from 2004 to 2007. Assets of the top 500 Islamic banks expanded 28.6% to $822 billion at year-end 2009 Islamic industry size is estimated to be at 400 billion USD with growth of 15% per annum. Demand for Islamic banking products and service is growing, Islamic banking has developed into a full fledg e system, today Islamic banks are working in 75 countries beside that there are many financial institutions from the conventional banking systems have lunched Islamic banking windows working side by side with Islamic banks to overcome the growing market demand on Islamic products and services. In Malaysia and Bahrain Islamic banks are working at parallel with conventional banks participating in the overall money transacted (Scribd; 2010). In some countries, such as Iran, Sudan and Pakistan, Islamic bank are the only mainstream financial institutions. In others, they exist within conjunction with conventional banking. The Arab Gulf region and Southeast Asia, led by Malaysia, traditionally have been the major centers for Islamic banking. In recent years Islamic banking has expanded into Africa, particular in Sudan (Tahir 2007). Sudan has full financial system running at a national level by Islamic finance and banking principles, Iran also have switched to fully working Islamic b anking system in spite of the conceptual interpretation differences.UK, Euro countries and many other countries have initiated Islamic banking participations by allowing Islamic banks to start doing business (Tahir 2007). Chart 2.1 is showing that Iran is the higher ranked in Islamic banking assts followed by Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Indeed, Bahrain has 10 Islamic banks compare with 19 banks in Sudan. In fact, Iran, Sudan and Pakistan fully operate as a full main stream Islamic banking system. Chart 2.1 Break Down of the Worlds 100 Islamic Banks Source: Asian Banker Research Bahrain have a large concentration of Islamic banking in the Middle East where it hosts 26 institutions offering different products and services including commercial banking, offshore banking, investment banking and fund management , Bahrain also purse a dual banking system where conventional and Islamic banking are treated equally by the Bahrain Monetary Agency , Bahrain also hosts the newly creat ed liquidity management center and the international Islamic financial market , to coordinate the operation of Islamic banking around the world. Malaysia has a comprehensive Islamic banking industry where conventional and Islamic banks are working at a competitive environment; the conventional banks are allowed to open Islamic windows. The share of Islamic banking operation in Malaysia has grown from a nil to 8 percent in 2003 where the government in Malaysia has a plan to enhance that to 20 percent by 2011. There is a growing interest for Islamic finance and a business opportunity for lenders in the United States where Islamic banking is largely exists in the personal home mortgages (Tahir 2007). Chart 2.2 explains that the issuance of Sukuk financial records for about 10% of the comprehensive Islamic finance industry, subsequent to fast growth over the past decade. Cumulative total issues topped the figurative mark of $100 billion at year-end 2009, compared with less than $500 million at year-end 2001. The market is slowly reviving after a major slowdown in 2008. Sukuk issues totaling $23.3 billion in 2009 clearly outpaced the $14.9 billion registered in 2008 and regained some ground against record issues of $34.3 billion in 2007. Chart 2.2 Sukuk Issuance in billions USD from 2001 to 2009 Source : (Poors 2010) 2.6 Definition of Corporate Governance The agency problem arises because of the relationship between the owners and the management. The scandal in corporate governance made the scholars defining corporate governance based on the problem solving perspective or corporate affairs perspective. In addition, most definition states that internal governance mechanism involves board of directors and ownership structure while external involves taking over market and legal system. Researchers have defined corporate governance in a variety of ways, and the most widely cited definitions follow. A definition by the finance committee on corporate governance in Malaysia in the report on corporate governance (2002) stated that: Corporate governance is the process and structure used to direct and manage the business and affairs of the company towards enhancing business prosperity and corporate accountability with the ultimate objective of realizing long term shareholder value, whilst taking account the interests of other stakeholders. This indicates that corporate governance is not only applied to the shareholders but the other stakeholders as well. 2.7 Corporate Governance System around the World 2.7.1 Anglo-Saxon Corporate Governance System The Anglo -Saxon system is taking by the main source of firms finance. Therefore, the main concentration of Anglo-Saxon corporate governance is the shareholder interest where the principle is applied by given the right to each shareholder to vote pursuant to that the law found to be protecting the shareholder against the management where a shareholder can be found misusing the company money which might affect the shareholder wealth. The composition of the Anglo-Saxon corporate governance system is one board of directors constituting of executives and non-executives. The executive directors are managers of the corporations; whereas the non-executive directors are representing the shareholders to monitor the manager in their day to day business. Both executive and non-executives directors members are appointed and dismissed by general assembly of shareholders.(Denis and McConnell 2003). 2.7.2 Germanic Corporate Governance System The Germanic corporate governance system deals with the firm as an autonomous economic entity which may benefit to shareholders and stakeholders in the firm. Countries which implement this system use two board systems consisting of a supervisory board and managing board. Supervisory board main duties are to appoint the managing dismiss managing board and to evaluate management performance. Germanic corporate governance system considers the bank as the main source of finance. Therefore, the bank has a significant voting right in shareholders shareholders assembly and also represents shareholders interest in a supervisory board (Odenius; 2008) . 2.7.3 Latin Corporate Governance System The Latin corporate governance system is considered more flexible compared with previous Systems. In a context of board of directors, Latin corporations have an option to select either one board as Anglo-Saxon system or two boards as in Germanic System, shareholders have more influence in the Latin system i.e. in French legislation, shareholders can remove a director, which overrule on a share one vote system.(Aguilera and Ermoli 2005) 2.7.4 Japanese Corporate Governance System The board of directors in Japanese system comprises a board of directors, an office of representive directors and an office of auditors. The president is the rarely the chair man of the board. Banks have high influence on the decision making of the management in the Japanese system .(Allen; and Zhao; 2007) 2.7.5 Islamic Corporate Governance. The corporate governance in Islamic banking is based on Islamic law and principles. The governance of the banks is subject to acceptance of the principles and standard of Shariah. Islamic corporate governance tension on all the parties involved in the organization to practice Islamic law principles. Since Islamic banks in many ways are similar to the conventional banks; the existence of a proper frame work of corporate governance is a matter of dire necessity (Pellegrini 2006). However, in accordance with the fact that Islamic banking and conventional banking are different because Islamic banking activities are underlined by Islamic law its not appropriate for Islamic banking to divert from Islamic practices .Thus, the responsibility is on Islamic banks to ensure that all activities are subject to Shariah law acceptance (Pellegrini 2006). In terms of guidelines and principles constructed in accordance with Islamic law there are many standardizing agencies; theses agencies inc lude the Islamic financial service board (IFSB), the accounting and auditing organization for Islamic financial institutions (AAOIFI), and International Islamic rating agency (IIRA); are of the important bodies concerned with regulations enhancing the supervision in Islamic financial institutions (Grais and Pellegrini 2006; Pellegrini 2006; Wafik Grais 2007). Researchers have conceptually explained the differences attributed to corporate governance principles in Islamic law and corporate governance principles in non Islamic law, the proposed considerations mostly concentrated on Shariah supervisions, financing modes and risk managements. In addition, Islamic finance scholars have supported the explanation of theoretical base of Islamic banking and finance on stakeholder theory considering that any party who affect of get affected by the activities conducted in the Islamic financial institution is a stack holder of the Islamic financial institution (BAHJATT; 1997; Chapera 2004; Ab u-Tapanjeh 2009). Table 1.1 focuses on the differences between the organization for economic cooperation and developments principles and Islamic principles where sole authority is to Shariah, society is a stakeholder and the sense of equality between different parties involved in the corporation process. Islamic perspective on corporate governance, to some extent, resembles to the stakeholder model. Indeed, it provides a more solid justification regarding who can qualify as a stakeholder and what are the rights and responsibilities that both firms and their various stakeholders may assume. Table 1.1 Corporate Governance from Islamic Prospective OECD Principles and Annotation Islamic Principles Insuring the basis for an effective corporate governance framework Promotion of transparent and efficient markets with rule of law and division of responsibilities Promotion of business within ethical framework of Shariah,Believes in profit and loss,Primacy of Justice and social welfare withsocial and spiritual obligations,Prohibition of interest The rights of shareholders and key ownership functions Basic shareholder rights, Participation in Decision-making at the general meetings, Structures and arrangements markets for corporate control, Ownership rights by all shareholders including institutional shareholders, Consultative process between shareholders and institutional shareholders Property as trust from God, Sole Authority is God, Society as stakeholders, Accountability not only to stakeholders but also to God, the ultimate owner The equitable treatment of shareholders Protection to minority and foreign shareholders Just and fairness of value The role of stakeholders in corporate governance In creating wealth, jobs and sustainability of financially sound Enterprises Islamic accountability to Falahand social welfare orientation, Haram/Halaldichotomy in transaction, Social individual welfare from both spiritual and material Disclosure and transparency Matters regarding corporation, Financial situation, Performance, ownership and Governance Accountability with Shariahcompliance, Socio-economic objectives related to firms control and accountability to all its stakeholders, Justice, equality, truthfulness transparency, Wider accountability with written as well as oral disclosure The responsibilities of the board Strategic guidance, Monitoring of management, Accountability to company and stakeholders Accountability not only to company or board or stakeholders but also to Allah the ultimate authority who leads to welfare and success, Holistic and integrative guidance, Negotiation and co-operation, Consultation and consensus seeking for each decision with related stakeholders Source : (OECD 1999; Abu-Tapanjeh 2009) Unlike the known corporate governance systems where the solving of agency conflict is one of the important issues related to the governance mechanisms. Islamic corporate governance laid the liaison and activities of the bank to Shariah supervisory board and main Shariah board at the central bank of the country. Thus, each party involved in the transaction and activities of the bank is stakeholder. The Islamic finance activities have the obligation towards employees, community and related parties of organization. The staff in Islamic bank should act according to Islamic principles and adhere to the teaching of Islam. Accounting standards in the Islamic bank should consider that Islamic banking is interest free banking(M; 2007). Shariah supervisory board (SSB) has the authority to reject any of the projects which is not in accordance with their expectation. Indeed, the process of the Shariah reviewing the activities is one of the fundamentals of Islamic banking transaction. The Shariah reviewing process includes risk management, auditing committee and Shariah research functions (Hamzah 2009). . Figure 2.1 is explaining the process of The Shariah supervisory board where Shariah board receives the new projects and products before they are presented to the customers in order to assure the Shariah compliance. Shariah board process will supervise bank activities and processes in order to assure the Shariah compliance. Shariah supervisory board has the responsibility to enhance the Islamic banking knowledge among the employees in the Islamic banks. Figure 2.1 Shariah Board Process Source : (BNM 1 October 2005) The board of directors is committed to the decisions made by the Shariah supervisory board irrespective of whether the majority approve or disapprove. The meeting of the board usually is held periodically or whenever the situation require (DIB 2010). 2.8 Principles of Islamic Corporate Governance The Islamic financial service board (IFSB) is an international guidelines and regulation organization that concentrate on improving the consistency and firmness of the Islamic financial services institutions by issuing global standards and principles for the industry, mostly distinct to include institutions which deal under Islamic law (IFSB 2006). The principles is concerned about enhancing the process of the Islamic banks under a proper mechanism related to Shariah law which highlight and explain what are the duties and responsibilities related to stakeholder in the Islamic bank. The principles detail the process and structure of governance in the Islamic to achieve the optimum smooth of return to stakeholders (IFSB 2006). As per the principles guidelines its of importance to meet to principles because that will help providing a typical disclosure particularly financial statements for internal audit which deliver a great responsibility to the stakeholders, indeed it also en dorses the Basel I, II and the principles of corporate governance in banks, so as to ensure the safety of Islamic banking and to provide protection for the assets and rights of customers of Islamic banks encouraging commitment to the decisions of (IFSB) .The sitting standards by IFSB for Islamic financial institutions involve the discussion on the mechanism to balance between different stakeholders in the organization including the duties and responsibilities, the board of directors and financial reporting requirements (IFSB 2006). Table 2.1 presents the main principles for Islamic financial institutions including Islamic banks which must adhere to Islamic law including governance mechanisms, right of investment account holders, and compliance with Islamic Shariah rules and the transparency of account reporting. Table 2.1 the Guiding Principles of Islamic Financial Service Board IFSB Principle 1.1: IIFS shall establish a comprehensive governance policy framework which sets out the strategic roles and functions of each organ of governance and mechanisms for balancing the IIFSs accountabilities to various stakeholders. Principle 1.2: IIFS shall ensure that the reporting of their financial and non-financial information meets the requirements of internationally recognized accounting standards which are in compliance with Shariahrules and principles and are applicable to the Islamic financial services industry as recognized by the supervisory authorities of the country. Principle 2.1: IIFS shall acknowledge IAHs right to monitor the performance of their investments and the associated risks, and put into place adequate means to ensure that these rights are observed and exercised. Principle 2.2: IIFS shall adopt a sound investment strategy which is appropriately aligned to the risk and return expectations of IAH (bearing in mind the distinction between restricted and unrestricted IAH), and be transparent in smoothing any returns. Principle 3.1: I IFS shall have in place an appropriate mechanism for obtaining rulings from Shariahscholars, applying Fatwaand monitoring Shariahcompliance in all aspects of their products, operations and activities. Principle 3.2: IIFS shall comply with the Shariahrules and principles as expressed in the rulings of the IIFSs Shariahscholars. The IIFS shall make these rulings available to the public. Principle 4: IIFS shall make adequate and timely disclosure to IAH and the public of material and relevant information on the investment accounts that they manage. Source: International Islamic Finance Services Board (IFSB 2006) 2.8.1 Ownership Islamic banks guiding principles permit the bank to constitute the capital from original and foreign resources, in respect to the rate of deposit and place of deposit of the capital fund , it will be decided by the proficient authority, Islamic bank will constitute a reserve fund and every year an specific amount of profit will be kept in this fund from the net income after paying of tax and Zakat at the time assessing the minimum asset Islamic bank will take into consideration the balance of Savings Account, Investment Account, other deposit liabilities including the cash in hand other liabilities as directed by the proficient authority (SolÃ © 2008). 2.8.2 Board Size The principles of Islamic banking enhances the implementations of Basel I, II and III In explaining the board size requirement in Islamic banks, the governance code recommended that the impact of size should be examined on the board effectiveness. However there is no specified numbers of the board recommended. It is in line with the above-mentioned arguments that a board should not be too big or too small. However, the Islamic banks should allow a board with active participation and has the ability to make effective decisions and performing their functions (SolÃ © 2008). 2.8.3 Qualifications As part of the governance enhancement effort, IIFSB in its listing requirements requires all directors of Islamic banks to undertake continuous training and education improvement process. It aims at influencing corporate thinking on governance issues among the directors (Kasri 2008). 2.8.4 Disclosure As the Islamic financial services industry increases its activities in the global financial scaffold, IIFS requires the Islamic banks to abide by globally recognized reporting standards. IIFS is therefore ensuring that the reporting of financial and non-financial information is in harmony with worldwide recognized accounting standards, particularly those applicable to Islamic financial services. Islamic bank will appoint an auditor every year, which is to be approved by the proficient authority (SolÃ © 2008). The main principles enhancing the world banking system are the Basel principles. Basel is a committee focusing on formulating standards for banks especially those guidelines which help to maintain the risk level and safety against financial crisis. The Basel committees standards have been going through wide improvement from time to another. Basel I in 1998 required the countries to have a minimal capital requirement for banks; most of the focus was on credit risk. Basel I instructed the banks with international presence to hold capital equal to 8 % of the risk weighted assets. 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